Docs: Options

This document is a reference, describing all options supported by Skeema. To learn how to use options in general, please see the configuration guide.

Index


allow-auto-inc

Commandsdiff, push, lint, Cloud Linter
Default“int unsigned, bigint unsigned”
Typestring
RestrictionsTo specify multiple values, use a comma-separated list

This option specifies which data types are permissible for auto_increment columns. This option only has an effect if lint-auto-inc is set to “warning” (the default) or “error”. If so, a warning or error (respectively) will be emitted for any auto_increment column using a data type not included in this list.

When specifying values in this list, always omit the display width. For example, specify “int unsigned”, never “int(10) unsigned”.

The purpose of this option is to avoid various auto_increment pain points:

  • Integer overflow / ID exhaustion: it is extremely problematic when an auto_increment column reaches the maximum value for its column type. To avoid this situation, only allow larger int types for this option.
  • Signed types: The behavior of auto_increment columns is undefined when negative numbers are present. To avoid this situation, only permit unsigned types for this option.
  • Float types: MySQL and MariaDB permit float and double columns to be auto_increment, but due to inexact precision the behavior is undesirable and nonsensical, and now deprecated in MySQL 8.0.17.

Some companies ban use of auto_increment entirely. This can be enforced in Skeema by setting this option to a blank string (e.g. allow-auto-inc='') while also setting lint-auto-inc to “error”.

allow-charset

Commandsdiff, push, lint, Cloud Linter
Default“latin1,utf8mb4”
Typestring
RestrictionsTo specify multiple values, use a comma-separated list

This option specifies which character sets are permitted by Skeema’s linter. This option only has an effect if lint-charset is set to “warning” (the default) or “error”. If so, a warning or error (respectively) will be emitted for any table using a character set not included in this list.

This option checks column character sets as well as table default character sets. It does not currently check any other object type besides tables.

allow-compression

Commandsdiff, push, lint, Cloud Linter
Default“none,4kb,8kb”
Typestring
RestrictionsTo specify multiple values, use a comma-separated list

This option specifies which InnoDB table compression settings/modes are permitted by Skeema’s linter. This option only has an effect if lint-compression is set to “warning” (the default) or “error”. If so, a warning or error (respectively) will be emitted for any InnoDB table using a compression setting not included in this list.

The value of this option should be set to a comma-separated list of one or more of the following values:

  • none: Allow uncompressed tables
  • 1kb: Allow tables using KEY_BLOCK_SIZE=1
  • 2kb: Allow tables using KEY_BLOCK_SIZE=2
  • 4kb: Allow tables using KEY_BLOCK_SIZE=4
  • 8kb: Allow tables using KEY_BLOCK_SIZE=8
  • 16kb: Allow tables using KEY_BLOCK_SIZE=16
  • page: Allow tables using transparent page compression (e.g. COMPRESSION='zlib' in MySQL, or PAGE_COMPRESSED=1 in MariaDB)

To prevent use of compressed tables, set only allow-compression=none. Conversely, to require compression, set allow-compression to a list of values that excludes none.

For the purposes of this option, InnoDB tables which specify ROW_FORMAT=COMPRESSED without a KEY_BLOCK_SIZE are treated by Skeema’s linter as having KEY_BLOCK_SIZE=8, which is correct assuming the innodb_page_size on the server has not been modified from its default.

allow-definer

Commandsdiff, push, lint, Cloud Linter
Default“%@%”
Typestring
RestrictionsTo specify multiple values, use a comma-separated list

This option specifies which DEFINER users are permitted by Skeema’s linter for stored procedures and functions. This option only has an effect if lint-definer is set to “error” (the default) or “warning”. If so, an error or warning (respectively) will be emitted for any routine using a DEFINER not matched by any value in this list.

The value of this option should be a comma-separated list of MySQL-style user@host values, optionally using SQL LIKE-style wildcards of % and _. For example, allow-definer=root@%,procdef@192.168.% will permit a definer of root with any hostname, or procdef with any IP beginning with 192.168.

The default value for this option is intentionally permissive of all possible DEFINER users. You must override this option if you wish to restrict what DEFINER users are permissible. This is useful for limiting privileges of routines.

This option may also affect other object types with definers (e.g. views) once they are supported in a future version of Skeema.

allow-engine

Commandsdiff, push, lint, Cloud Linter
Default“innodb”
Typestring
RestrictionsTo specify multiple values, use a comma-separated list

This option specifies which storage engines are permitted by Skeema’s linter. This option only has an effect if lint-engine is set to “warning” (the default) or “error”. If so, a warning or error (respectively) will be emitted for any table using a storage engine not included in this list.

allow-unsafe

Commandsdiff, push
Defaultfalse
Typeboolean
Restrictionsnone

If set to the default of false, skeema push refuses to run any DDL on a database if any of the operations are “unsafe” – that is, they have the potential to destroy data. Similarly, skeema diff also refuses to function in this case; even though skeema diff never executes DDL anyway, it serves as an accurate “dry run” for skeema push and therefore aborts in the same fashion.

The following operations are considered unsafe:

  • Dropping a table
  • Altering a table to drop a normal column or stored (non-virtual) generated column
  • Altering a table to modify an existing column in a way that potentially causes data loss, length truncation, or reduction in precision
  • Altering a table to modify the character set of an existing column
  • Altering a table to change its storage engine
  • Dropping a stored procedure or function (even if just to re-create it with a modified definition)

If allow-unsafe is set to true, these operations are fully permitted, for all tables. It is not recommended to enable this setting in an option file, especially in the production environment. It is safer to require users to supply it manually on the command-line on an as-needed basis, to serve as a confirmation step for unsafe operations.

To conditionally control execution of unsafe operations based on table size, see the safe-below-size option.

alter-algorithm

Commandsdiff, push
Defaultempty string
Typeenum
RestrictionsRequires one of these values: “inplace”, “copy”, “instant”, “default”, ""

Adds an ALGORITHM clause to any generated ALTER TABLE statement, in order to force enabling/disabling MySQL 5.6+ or MariaDB 10.0+ support for online DDL. When used in skeema push, executing the statement will fail if any generated ALTER clause does not support the specified algorithm. See the MySQL manual for more information on the effect of this clause.

The explicit value “default” is supported, and will add a “ALGORITHM=DEFAULT” clause to all ALTER TABLEs, but this has no real effect vs simply omitting alter-algorithm entirely.

MySQL 5.5 does not support the ALGORITHM clause of ALTER TABLE, so use of this option will cause an error in that version.

The “instant” algorithm was added in MySQL 8.0. Supplying alter-algorithm=instant in an older version will cause an error.

If alter-wrapper is set to use an external online schema change (OSC) tool such as pt-online-schema-change, alter-algorithm should not also be used unless alter-wrapper-min-size is also in-use. This is to prevent sending ALTER statements containing ALGORITHM clauses to the external OSC tool.

alter-lock

Commandsdiff, push
Defaultempty string
Typeenum
RestrictionsRequires one of these values: “none”, “shared”, “exclusive”, “default”, ""

Adds a LOCK clause to any generated ALTER TABLE statement, in order to force enabling/disabling MySQL 5.6+ or MariaDB 10.0+ support for online DDL. When used in skeema push, executing the statement will fail if any generated ALTER clause does not support the specified lock method. See the MySQL manual for more information on the effect of this clause.

The explicit value “default” is supported, and will add a “LOCK=DEFAULT” clause to all ALTER TABLEs, but this has no real effect vs simply omitting alter-lock entirely.

MySQL 5.5 does not support the LOCK clause of ALTER TABLE, so use of this option will cause an error in that version.

If alter-wrapper is set to use an external online schema change tool such as pt-online-schema-change, alter-lock should not be used unless alter-wrapper-min-size is also in-use. This is to prevent sending ALTER statements containing LOCK clauses to the external OSC tool.

alter-validate-virtual

Commandsdiff, push
Defaultfalse
Typebool
Restrictionsnone

Adds a WITH VALIDATION clause to ALTER TABLEs affecting virtual generated columns, meaning that the database server will confirm that the calculated values fit into the designated data type of the new or modified virtual column(s), for all existing rows of the table. Note however that this can cause significantly slower ALTER TABLE execution. Refer to the MySQL manual for more information on the effect of this clause.

Skeema will only ever apply a WITH VALIDATION clause to DDL adding or modifying a virtual generated column. This option has no effect in all other situations, meaning it is safe to enable permanently in a .skeema file if desired.

This option has no effect in versions of MySQL and Percona Server prior to 5.7, when generated column support was added. This option may result in a syntax error when used in any version of MariaDB; even though MariaDB 10.2+ supports MySQL’s syntax for generated columns, MariaDB does not support the WITH VALIDATION clause.

alter-wrapper

Commandsdiff, push
Defaultempty string
Typestring
Restrictionsnone

This option causes skeema push to shell out to an external process, such as pt-online-schema-change, to handle execution of ALTER TABLE statements.

For each ALTER TABLE statement in the diff, rather than executing the ALTER directly, skeema push will instead shell out to the external process. Meanwhile the output of skeema diff will display what command-line would be executed, but it won’t actually be run.

This option supports use of special variables, which you can pass to the external script on its command-line. Skeema will dynamically replace these with an appropriate value when building the final command-line. See options with variable interpolation for more information. The following variables are supported by alter-wrapper:

  • {HOST} – hostname (or IP) that this ALTER TABLE targets
  • {PORT} – port number for the host that this ALTER TABLE targets
  • {SCHEMA} – schema name containing the table that this ALTER TABLE targets
  • {USER} – MySQL username defined by the user option either via command-line or option file
  • {PASSWORD} – MySQL password defined by the password option either via command-line or option file
  • {PASSWORDX} – Behaves like {PASSWORD} when the command-line is executed, but only displays X’s whenever the command-line is displayed on STDOUT
  • {ENVIRONMENT} – environment name from the first positional arg on Skeema’s command-line, or “production” if none specified
  • {DDL} – Full ALTER TABLE statement, including all clauses
  • {NAME} – table name that this ALTER TABLE targets
  • {TABLE} – table name that this ALTER TABLE targets (identical to {NAME})
  • {SIZE} – size of table that this ALTER TABLE targets, in bytes. For tables with no rows, this will be 0, regardless of actual size of the empty table on disk.
  • {CLAUSES} – Body of the ALTER TABLE statement, i.e. everything after ALTER TABLE <name> . This is what pt-online-schema-change’s –alter option expects.
  • {TYPE} – always the word “ALTER” in all caps.
  • {CLASS} – always the word “TABLE” in all caps.
  • {CONNOPTS} – Session variables passed through from the connect-options option
  • {DIRNAME} – The base name (last path element) of the directory being processed.
  • {DIRPATH} – The full (absolute) path of the directory being processed.

This option can be used for integration with an online schema change tool, logging system, CI workflow, or any other tool (or combination of tools via a custom script) that you wish. An example alter-wrapper for executing pt-online-schema-change is included in the FAQ.

This option does not affect CREATE TABLE or DROP TABLE statements; nor does it affect non-table DDL such as CREATE DATABASE or ALTER DATABASE. To execute all DDL (regardless of operation type or object class) through an external script, see ddl-wrapper.

alter-wrapper-min-size

Commandsdiff, push
Default0
Typesize
RestrictionsHas no effect unless alter-wrapper also set

Any table smaller than this size (in bytes) will ignore the alter-wrapper option. This permits skipping the overhead of external OSC tools when altering small tables.

The size comparison is a strict less-than. This means that with the default value of 0, alter-wrapper is always applied if set, as no table can be less than 0 bytes.

To only skip alter-wrapper on empty tables (ones without any rows), set alter-wrapper-min-size to 1. Skeema always treats empty tables as size 0 bytes as a special-case.

If alter-wrapper-min-size is set to a value greater than 0, whenever the alter-wrapper is applied to a table (any table >= the supplied size value), the alter-algorithm and alter-lock options are both ignored automatically. This prevents sending an ALTER statement containing ALGORITHM or LOCK clauses to an external OSC tool. This permits a configuration that uses built-in online DDL for small tables, and an external OSC tool for larger tables.

If this option is supplied along with both alter-wrapper and ddl-wrapper, ALTERs on tables below the specified size will still have ddl-wrapper applied. This configuration is not recommended due to its complexity.

brief

Commandsdiff
Defaultfalse
Typeboolean
RestrictionsShould only appear on command-line

Ordinarily, skeema diff outputs DDL statements to STDOUT. With brief, skeema diff will instead only output a newline-delimited list of unique instances (host:port) that had at least one difference. This can be useful in a sharded environment, to see which shards are not up-to-date with the latest schema changes.

Only the STDOUT portion of skeema diff’s output is affected by this option; logging output to STDERR still occurs as normal. To filter that out, use shell redirection as usual; for example, skeema diff 2>/dev/null will eliminate the STDERR logging. However, take care to examine the process’s exit code ($?) in this case, to avoid missing error conditions. See skeema diff --help to interpret the exit code values.

Since its purpose is to just see which instances contain schema differences, enabling the brief option always automatically disables the verify option and enables the allow-unsafe option.

compare-metadata

Commandsdiff, push
Defaultfalse
Typeboolean
Restrictionsnone

In MySQL and MariaDB, whenever a procedure, function, trigger, or event is created, two pieces of environmental metadata are automatically stored and associated with the object: the session sql_mode in effect at the time, and the default collation of the database containing the object. This metadata affects execution of the stored program in subtle ways, and even if the global sql_mode or database default collation changes at a later time, existing objects are not updated automatically by the database server itself. The compare-metadata option controls whether or not Skeema should include this metadata in its diff logic.

By default, skeema diff and skeema push ignore this creation-time metadata when comparing objects, because it exists outside of the SQL CREATE statement entirely.

Enabling the compare-metadata option will cause skeema diff and skeema push to include two extra comparisons for relevant object types:

  • Compare the object’s original creation-time sql_mode to the current global sql_mode
  • Compare the object’s original creation-time db_collation to its database’s current default collation

If any differences are found in those comparisons, the generated SQL DDL will include statements to drop and recreate the object. This output can be somewhat counter-intuitive, however, since the relevant change is outside of the SQL statement itself.

Currently, this option only affects stored procedures and functions, as Skeema does not yet support triggers or events. If support for triggers and/or events is added in a future version, this option will affect them as well.

concurrent-instances

Commandsdiff, push
Default1
Typeint
RestrictionsMust be a positive integer

By default, skeema diff and skeema push only operate on one database server instance (mysqld process) at a time. To operate on multiple instances simultaneously, set concurrent-instances to the number of database instances to run on concurrently. This is useful in an environment with multiple shards or clusters.

On each individual database instance, only one DDL operation will be run at a time by skeema push, regardless of concurrent-instances. Concurrency within an instance may be configurable in a future version of Skeema.

connect-options

Commandsall
Defaultempty string (see below)
Typestring
Restrictionsnone

This option stores a comma-separated list of session variables to set upon connecting to the database. For example, a value of wait_timeout=86400,innodb_lock_wait_timeout=1,lock_wait_timeout=60 would set these three MySQL variables, at the session level, for connections made by Skeema.

Any string-valued variables must have their values wrapped in single-quotes. Take extra care to nest or escape quotes properly in your shell if supplying connect-options on the command-line. For example, --connect-options="lock_wait_timeout=60,sql_mode='STRICT_ALL_TABLES,ALLOW_INVALID_DATES'"

The following MySQL session variables cannot be set by this option, since it would interfere with Skeema’s internal operations:

  • autocommit – cannot be disabled in Skeema
  • foreign_key_checks – see Skeema’s own foreign-key-checks option to manipulate this
  • information_schema_stats_expiry – always automatically set to 0 if the flavor supports this option, to prevent stale data from appearing in information_schema
  • default_storage_engine – always set to InnoDB for Skeema’s sessions
  • sql_quote_show_create – always enabled for Skeema’s sessions

Aside from the above list, any legal MySQL session variable may be set.

This option only affects connections made directly by Skeema. If you are using an external tool via alter-wrapper or ddl-wrapper, you will also need to configure that tool to set options appropriately. Skeema’s {CONNOPTS} variable can help avoid redundancy here; for example, if configuring pt-online-schema-change, you could include --set-vars {CONNOPTS} on its command-line to pass the same configured options dynamically.

If you do not override sql_mode in connect-options, Skeema will default to using a session-level value of 'ONLY_FULL_GROUP_BY,STRICT_TRANS_TABLES,NO_ZERO_IN_DATE,NO_ZERO_DATE, ERROR_FOR_DIVISION_BY_ZERO,NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTION'. This provides a consistent strict-mode baseline for Skeema’s behavior, regardless of what the server global default is set to. Similarly, innodb_strict_mode is enabled by default for Skeema’s sessions, but may be overridden to disable if desired. Note that skeema init will automatically set a non-strict connect-options in .skeema if at least one existing table is incompatible with strict settings (e.g., use of a zero-date default, or an unsupported ROW_FORMAT).

As a special-case, whenever Skeema creates stored procedures or functions, the server’s default global sql_mode will be used, regardless of any override here. This is necessary because MySQL persists the creation-time sql_mode into the routine metadata, and Skeema assumes the server’s global default is the preferred value.

In addition to setting MySQL session variables, you may also set any of these special variables which affect client-side behavior at the internal driver/protocol level:

  • charset=string – Character set used for client-server interaction
  • collation=string – Collation used for client-server interaction
  • maxAllowedPacket=int – Max allowed packet size, in bytes
  • allowCleartextPasswords=bool – Allow use of cleartext auth methods such as auth_pam_compat or AWSAuthenticationPlugin; default false
  • rejectReadOnly=bool – Reconnect upon a DBaaS returning read-only errors; default false
  • tls=value – Configure SSL usage; value may be preferred (use SSL if available), skip-verify (require SSL), or false (disable SSL); default preferred
  • readTimeout=duration – Query timeout; the value must be a float with a unit suffix (“ms” or “s”); default 20s
  • timeout=duration – Connection timeout; the value must be a float with a unit suffix (“ms” or “s”); default 5s
  • writeTimeout=duration – Socket write timeout; the value must be a float with a unit suffix (“ms” or “s”); default 5s

All of these special driver variables are case-sensitive. Unlike session variables, their values should never be wrapped in quotes. These special non-MySQL variables are automatically stripped from {CONNOPTS}, so they won’t be passed through to tools that don’t understand them.

The value of readTimeout applies to all queries made directly by Skeema, except for ALTER TABLE and DROP TABLE statements, which are exempted from timeouts entirely.

ddl-wrapper

Commandsdiff, push
Defaultempty string
Typestring
Restrictionsnone

This option works exactly like alter-wrapper, except that it applies to all DDL statements regardless of operation type (ALTER, DROP, CREATE) or object class (TABLE, DATABASE, etc) – not just ALTER TABLE statements. This is intended for use in situations where all DDL statements need to be sent through a common script or system for execution.

For each DDL statement in the diff, rather than executing the DDL directly, skeema push will instead shell out to the external process. Meanwhile the output of skeema diff will display what command-line would be executed, but it won’t actually be run.

If both of alter-wrapper and ddl-wrapper are set, then alter-wrapper will be applied to ALTER TABLE statements, and ddl-wrapper will be applied to all other DDL.

If only ddl-wrapper is set, then it will be applied to all DDL.

For even more fine-grained control, such as different behavior for CREATE vs DROP, set ddl-wrapper to a custom script which performs a different action based on {TYPE} and/or {CLASS}.

This command supports use of special variables. Skeema will dynamically replace these with an appropriate value when building the final command-line. See options with variable interpolation for more information. The following variables are supported by ddl-wrapper:

  • {HOST} – hostname (or IP) that this DDL statement targets
  • {PORT} – port number for the host that this DDL statement targets
  • {SCHEMA} – default database name (schema name) that the DDL statement should be executed in. Blank if {CLASS} is DATABASE.
  • {USER} – MySQL username defined by the user option either via command-line or option file
  • {PASSWORD} – MySQL password defined by the password option either via command-line or option file
  • {PASSWORDX} – Behaves like {PASSWORD} when the command-line is executed, but only displays X’s whenever the command-line is displayed on STDOUT
  • {ENVIRONMENT} – environment name from the first positional arg on Skeema’s command-line, or “production” if none specified
  • {DDL} – Full DDL statement, including all clauses
  • {NAME} – object name that this DDL statement targets
  • {TABLE} – if the object is a table, identical to {NAME}; blank for non-tables
  • {SIZE} – size of table that this DDL statement targets, in bytes. For tables with no rows, this will be 0, regardless of actual size of the empty table on disk. It will also be 0 for CREATE TABLE statements. It will be 0 if {CLASS} isn’t TABLE.
  • {CLAUSES} – Body of the DDL statement, i.e. everything after ALTER TABLE <name> or CREATE TABLE <name> . This is blank for DROP TABLE statements, and blank if {CLASS} isn’t TABLE.
  • {TYPE} – the operation type: the word “CREATE”, “DROP”, or “ALTER” in all caps.
  • {CLASS} – the object class: the word “TABLE”, “DATABASE”, “PROCEDURE”, or “FUNCTION” in all caps. Additional object classes (e.g. “VIEW”) may be supported in the future.
  • {CONNOPTS} – Session variables passed through from the connect-options option
  • {DIRNAME} – The base name (last path element) of the directory being processed.
  • {DIRPATH} – The full (absolute) path of the directory being processed.

debug

Commandsall
Defaultfalse
Typeboolean
RestrictionsShould only appear on command-line or in a global option file

This option enables debug logging in all commands. The extra output is sent to STDERR and includes the following:

  • When skeema diff or skeema push encounters tables that cannot be ALTERed due to use of features not yet supported by Skeema, the debug log will indicate which specific line(s) of the CREATE TABLE statement are using such features.
  • If a panic occurs in Skeema’s main thread, a full stack trace will be logged.
  • Options that control conditional logic based on table sizes, such as safe-below-size and alter-wrapper-min-size, provide debug output with size information whenever their condition is triggered.
  • Upon exiting, the numeric exit code will be logged.

default-character-set

Commandsall
Defaultempty string
Typestring
RestrictionsShould only appear in a .skeema option file that also contains schema

This option specifies the default character set to use for a particular schema. In .skeema files, it is populated automatically by skeema init and updated automatically by skeema pull.

If a new schema is being created for the first time via skeema push, and default-character-set has been set, it will be included as part of the CREATE DATABASE statement. If it has not been set, the instance’s default server-level character set is used instead.

If a schema already exists when skeema diff or skeema push is run, and default-character-set has been set, and its value differs from what the schema currently uses on the instance, an appropriate ALTER DATABASE statement will be generated.

default-collation

Commandsall
Defaultempty string
Typestring
RestrictionsShould only appear in a .skeema option file that also contains schema

This option specifies the default collation to use for a particular schema. In .skeema files, it is populated automatically by skeema init and updated automatically by skeema pull.

If a new schema is being created for the first time via skeema push, and default-collation has been set, it will be included as part of the CREATE DATABASE statement. If it has not been set, the instance’s default server-level collation is used instead.

If a schema already exists when skeema diff or skeema push is run, and default-collation has been set, and its value differs from what the schema currently uses on the instance, an appropriate ALTER DATABASE statement will be generated.

dir

Commandsinit, add-environment
Defaultsee below
Typestring
Restrictionsnone

For skeema init, specifies what directory to populate with table files (or, if multiple schemas present, schema subdirectories that then contain the table files). If unspecified, the default dir for skeema init is based on the hostname (and port, if non-3306). Either a relative or absolute path may be supplied. The directory will be created if it does not already exist. If it does already exist, it must not already contain a .skeema option file.

For skeema add-environment, specifies which directory’s .skeema file to add the environment to. The directory must already exist (having been created by a prior call to skeema init), and must already contain a .skeema file, but the new environment name must not already be defined in that file. If unspecified, the default dir for skeema add-environment is the current directory, “.”.

Please note that all other Skeema commands intentionally do not support the dir option. Most commands operate recursively from the current working directory, meaning you should generally cd to the desired location before invoking other commands.

docker-cleanup

Commandsdiff, push, pull, lint, format
Default“none”
Typeenum
RestrictionsRequires one of these values: “none”, “stop”, “destroy”

When using workspace=docker, the docker-cleanup option controls cleanup behavior of dynamically-managed Docker containers right before Skeema exits.

With the default value of “none”, no cleanup occurs, meaning that any dynamically-managed container(s) are left in the running state. This allows subsequent Skeema invocations to perform well, since no time is wasted recreating or restarting local database containers. However, the running containers may consume some resources on your local machine.

With a value of “stop”, containers are stopped, but not destroyed completely. Subsequent invocations of Skeema will need to restart the containers, which can take a few seconds, but is still faster than completely recreating the containers from scratch. The stopped containers won’t consume CPU or memory on your local machine, but may consume disk space.

With a value of “destroy”, containers are deleted upon Skeema shutdown. Each invocation of Skeema will need to recreate the containers, which can take 10-20 seconds. This option avoids most resource consumption on your local machine.

Regardless of the option used here, you may need to periodically perform prune operations in Docker itself to completely avoid any storage impact.

dry-run

Commandspush
Defaultfalse
Typeboolean
RestrictionsShould only appear on command-line

Running skeema push --dry-run is exactly equivalent to running skeema diff: the DDL will be generated and printed, but not executed. The same code path is used in both cases. The only difference is that skeema diff has its own help/usage text, but otherwise the command logic is the same as skeema push --dry-run.

errors

Commandsdiff, push, lint
Defaultempty string
Typestring
RestrictionsDeprecated as of Skeema v1.3

This option controlled the linter functionality in Skeema v1.2. As of Skeema v1.3 it is now deprecated, in favor of using separate lint-* options for each linter rule. This change has been made to avoid having a cumbersome list in a single option value.

If set, this option will still function in Skeema v1.3+, but it can only control the three linter rules that existed in Skeema v1.2. Users should migrate their configuration to the new options.

exact-match

Commandsdiff, push
Defaultfalse
Typeboolean
Restrictionsnone

Ordinarily, skeema diff and skeema push ignore certain table differences which have no functional impact in MySQL and serve purely cosmetic purposes. Currently there are two such cases:

  • If a table’s *.sql file lists its indexes in a different order than the live MySQL table, this difference is normally ignored to avoid needlessly dropping and re-adding the indexes, which may be slow if the table is large.
  • If a table’s *.sql file has foreign keys with the same definition, but different name, this difference is normally ignored to avoid needlessly dropping and re-adding the foreign keys. This provides better compatibility with external tools like pt-online-schema-change, which need to manipulate foreign key names in order to function.

If the exact-match option is used, these purely-cosmetic differences will be included in the generated ALTER TABLE statements instead of being suppressed. In other words, Skeema will attempt to make the exact table definition in MySQL exactly match the corresponding table definition specified in the *.sql file.

Be aware that MySQL itself sometimes also suppresses attempts to make cosmetic changes to a table’s definition! For example, MySQL may ignore attempts to cosmetically re-order indexes unless the table is forcibly rebuilt. You can combine the exact-match option with alter-algorithm=copy to circumvent this behavior on the MySQL side, but it may be slow for large tables.

Please note that in the one case in InnoDB when index ordering has a functional impact (tables with no primary key, but multiple unique indexes over all non-nullable columns), Skeema will automatically respect index ordering, regardless of whether exact-match is enabled.

first-only

Commandsdiff, push
Defaultfalse
Typeboolean
Restrictionsnone

Ordinarily, for individual directories that map to multiple instances and/or multiple schemas, skeema diff and skeema push will operate on all mapped instances, and all mapped schemas on those instances. If the first-only option is used, these commands instead only operate on the first instance and schema per directory.

In a sharded environment, this option can be useful to examine or execute a change only on one shard, before pushing it out on all shards. Alternatively, for more complex control, a similar effect can be achieved by using environment names. For example, you could create an environment called “production-canary” with host configured to map to a subset of the instances in the “production” environment.

flavor

Commandsall, as well as Cloud Linter
Defaultempty string
Typestring
RestrictionsShould only appear in a .skeema option file that also contains host

This option indicates the database server vendor and version corresponding to the first host defined in this directory. The value is typically formatted as “vendor:major.minor”, for example “mysql:5.6”, “percona:5.7”, or “mariadb:10.1”. A patch number may optionally be included as well, for example “mysql:8.0.19”.

This option is automatically populated in host-level .skeema files by skeema init, skeema pull, and skeema add-environment beginning in Skeema v1.0.3.

The notion of a database flavor affects various aspects of schema introspection and DDL generation in skeema diff and skeema push. Ordinarily, Skeema auto-detects the flavor of each database server it interacts with, and the value of flavor in a .skeema file has no real effect. However, there are a few special cases where the option value is used directly:

  • In some environments, Skeema may display a warning that it cannot automatically parse the database server’s actual vendor and/or version properly. In this situation, you can manually configure the correct flavor in a .skeema file, and Skeema will use the configured value.

  • Some aspects of Skeema’s connection pool behavior depend on the database flavor, but the connection pool setup logic inherently must occur prior to actually connecting to a database. In such cases, the flavor option will be trusted as-is. For example, with flavor=mysql:8.0, Skeema automatically configures its connection pools to disable the information_schema stat cache, to ensure information_schema always returns up-to-date results. The relevant session variable does not exist in older versions of MySQL, so the internal logic is gated on the configured flavor value.

  • With workspace=docker, the flavor value controls what Docker image is used for workspace containers. If no flavor is specified, an error is generated.

  • In Skeema Cloud Linter, the flavor value controls what database vendor and version is used for purposes of linting this directory. If no flavor is specified, Cloud Linter currently defaults to mysql:5.7.

Note that the database server’s actual auto-detected vendor and version take precedence over the flavor option in all other cases not listed above.

foreign-key-checks

Commandspush
Defaultfalse
Typeboolean
Restrictionsnone

By default, skeema push executes DDL in a session with foreign key checks disabled. This way, when adding a new foreign key to an existing table, no immediate integrity check is performed on existing data. This results in faster ALTER TABLE execution, and eliminates one possible failure vector for the DDL.

This behavior may be overridden by enabling the foreign-key-checks option. When enabled, skeema push enables foreign key checks for any ALTER TABLE that adds one or more foreign keys to an existing table. This means the server will validate existing data’s referential integrity for new foreign keys, and the ALTER TABLE will fail with a fatal error if the constraint is not met for all rows.

This option does not affect Skeema’s behavior for other DDL, including CREATE TABLE or DROP TABLE. These statements are always executed in a session with foreign key checks disabled, to avoid any potential issues with thorny order-of-operations or circular references.

This option has no effect in cases where an external OSC tool is being used via alter-wrapper or ddl-wrapper.

format

Commandspull, lint
Defaulttrue
Typeboolean
Restrictionsnone

If true, skeema pull and skeema lint will normalize the format of creation statements in all *.sql files to match the canonical format shown in MySQL’s SHOW CREATE, just like if skeema format was also called. If false, this step is skipped.

This option is enabled by default. To disable reformatting in skeema pull and skeema lint, use --skip-format on the command-line or skip-format in an option file.

Prior to Skeema 1.3, this option was only available for skeema pull and was called normalize / skip-normalize. The old name still works for skeema pull, but is deprecated.

host

Commandsall
DefaultN/A
Typestring
Restrictionssee limitations on placement

Specifies the hostname, IP address, or lookup key to connect to when processing this directory or its subdirectories. A port number may optionally be included using hostname:port syntax in host instead of using the separate port option. IPv6 addresses must be wrapped in brackets; if also including a port, use format [ipv6:address:here]:port.

If host is “localhost”, and no port is specified (inline or via the port option), the connection will use a UNIX domain socket instead of TCP/IP. See the socket option to specify the socket file path. This behavior is consistent with how the standard MySQL client operates. If you wish to connect to localhost using TCP/IP, supply host by IP (“127.0.0.1”).

For simple sharded environments with a small number of shards, you may optionally specify multiple addresses in a single host value by using a comma-separated list. In this situation, skeema diff and skeema push operate on all listed hosts, unless their first-only option is used. skeema pull always just operates on the first host as its source of truth.

Skeema can optionally integrate with service discovery systems via the host-wrapper option. In this situation, the purpose of host changes: instead of specifying a hostname or address, host is used for specifying a lookup key, which the service discovery system maps to one or more addresses. The lookup key may be inserted in the host-wrapper external command-line via the {HOST} placeholder variable. In this configuration host should be just a single value, never a comma-separated list; in a sharded environment it is the service discovery system’s responsibility to map a single lookup key to multiple addresses when appropriate. If all of your hosts are in the same group of shards and you have no need for a lookup key, you should still set host to a placeholder/dummy value in order to indicate that host-wrapper should be applied to a given directory.

In all cases, the specified host(s) should always be writable (master) instances, never replicas.

host-wrapper

Commandsall
Defaultempty string
Typestring
Restrictionsnone

This option controls how the host option is interpreted, and can be used to allow Skeema to interface with service discovery systems.

By default, host-wrapper is blank, and host values are interpreted literally as domain names or addresses (no service discovery). To configure Skeema to use service discovery instead, set host-wrapper to an external command-line to execute. Then, whenever Skeema needs to perform an operation on one or more database instances, it will execute the external command to determine which instances to operate on, instead of using host as a literal value.

The command line may contain special placeholder variables, which Skeema will dynamically replace with appropriate values. See options with variable interpolation for more information. The following variables are supported for this option:

  • {HOST} – the value of the host option, to use as a lookup key
  • {ENVIRONMENT} – environment name from the first positional arg on Skeema’s command-line, or “production” if none specified
  • {DIRNAME} – The base name (last path element) of the directory being processed.
  • {DIRPATH} – The full (absolute) path of the directory being processed.
  • {SCHEMA} – the value of the schema option for the directory being processed

Above, “the directory being processed” refers to a leaf directory defining the schema option and containing *.sql files.

The command’s STDOUT will be split on a consistent delimiter (newline, tab, comma, or space), and each token will be treated as an address. Here, “address” means any of the following formats:

  • hostname
  • hostname:port
  • ipv4
  • ipv4:port
  • [ipv6]
  • [ipv6]:port

If ports are omitted, the port option is used instead, which defaults to MySQL’s standard port 3306.

The external command should only return addresses of writable (master) instances, never replicas.

The host-wrapper option is designed to be specified generically at a high level directory, such as a .skeema file at the repository root, or perhaps a global option file. This way, you may specify a single generic service discovery command-line usable across your infrastructure, rather than redundantly configuring a command-line for each database cluster.

Setting or overriding host-wrapper in a subdirectory does not inherently cause the wrapper to be invoked upon processing that subdirectory; host-level subdirectories must also still specify some value for the host option in order to be processed. If your host-wrapper command-line does not make use of the {HOST} variable, then just use a static value such as host=1 in directories where the host-wrapper script should be invoked.

ignore-schema

Commandsinit, pull, diff, push
Defaultempty string
Typeregular expression
Restrictionsnone

Ordinarily, Skeema only ignores system schemas: information_schema, performance_schema, sys, test, mysql. The ignore-schema option allows you to specify a regular expression of additional schema names to ignore. (The system schemas are always ignored regardless.)

The value of this option must be a valid regex, and should not be wrapped in delimiters. See the option types documentation for an example, and information on how to do case-insensitive matching.

When supplied on the command-line to skeema init, the value will be persisted into the auto-generated .skeema option file, so that subsequent commands continue to ignore the corresponding schema names.

Once configured, this option affects skeema pull, skeema diff, and skeema push, effectively acting as a filter against the schema option. The documentation for the schema option describes some potential sharding use-cases.

Note that this option does not affect skeema lint or skeema format, as these commands operate on the filesystem representation without needing to interact with the schema option.

ignore-table

Commandsall
Defaultempty string
Typeregular expression
Restrictionsnone

Many external tools such as gh-ost and pt-online-schema-change will create temporary tables that you will not want to have as part of your Skeema workflow. The ignore-table option allows you to specify a regular expression of table names to ignore. For example, skeema init --ignore-table='^_.*' ... tells Skeema to ignore tables that have a leading underscore in their name.

The value of this option must be a valid regex, and should not be wrapped in delimiters. See the option types documentation for an example, and information on how to do case-insensitive matching.

When supplied on the command-line to skeema init, the value will be persisted into the auto-generated .skeema option file, so that subsequent commands continue to ignore the corresponding table names.

If a future version of Skeema adds support for views, this option will apply to views as well, since they share a namespace with tables. However, this option does not affect any other object types, such as stored procedures or functions.

include-auto-inc

Commandsinit, pull
Defaultfalse
Typeboolean
Restrictionsnone

Determines whether or not table definitions should contain next-auto-increment values. Defaults to false, meaning that ordinarily next-auto-increment values are omitted from *.sql files, since they usually aren’t useful to track in version control.

In skeema init, a false value omits AUTO_INCREMENT=X clauses in all table definitions, whereas a true value includes them based on whatever value is currently present on the table (typically its highest already-generated ID, plus one).

In skeema pull, a false value omits AUTO_INCREMENT=X clauses in any newly-written table files (tables that were created outside of Skeema, which are now getting a *.sql file written for the first time). Modified tables that already had AUTO_INCREMENT=X clauses, where X > 1, will have their AUTO_INCREMENT values updated; otherwise the clause will continue to be omitted in any file that previously omitted it. Meanwhile a true value causes all table files to now have AUTO_INCREMENT=X clauses.

Only set this to true if you intentionally need to track auto_increment values in all tables. If only a few tables require nonstandard auto_increment, simply include the value manually in the CREATE TABLE statement in the *.sql file. Subsequent calls to skeema pull won’t strip it, even if include-auto-inc is false.

lint

Commandsdiff, push
Defaulttrue
Typeboolean
Restrictionsnone

If true, skeema diff and skeema push will perform linter checks on all modified objects in the diff. Any triggered check set to “warning” level will be displayed, but will not otherwise affect the diff or push operation, nor will it affect the process’s exit code. Any triggered check set to “error” level will prevent the operation from proceeding for the current instance/schema pair.

Objects that were not modified in the diff – i.e. anything where the filesystem definition already functionally matches the database definition – are not linted during skeema diff or skeema push. To check all objects, use skeema lint instead.

Users with sharded environments should note that the definition of “modified in the diff” may vary per shard, if the shards are not all in the same state. Skeema computes the diff for each shard and lints the modified objects for each shard individually. Linter warning and error output will be generated (potentially redundantly) for every shard. In the rare situation that only some shards have modified objects with linter errors, only those shards will be bypassed by skeema push.

This option is enabled by default. To disable linting of changed objects in skeema diff and skeema push, use --skip-lint on the command-line or skip-lint in an option file. This will cause the linting step of diff/push to be skipped entirely, regardless of the configuration of other lint-related options.

lint-auto-inc

Commandsdiff, push, lint, Cloud Linter
Default“warning”
Typeenum
RestrictionsRequires one of these values: “ignore”, “warning”, “error”

This linter rule checks the data type used in auto_increment columns. Unless set to “ignore”, a warning or error will be emitted for any auto_increment column using a data type not listed in option allow-auto-inc.

The primary purpose of this linter rule is to avoid problematic auto_increment edge cases. Please refer to the manual entry for allow-auto-inc for usage recommendations.

In addition to checking the type of the column, this linter rule also examines the next AUTO_INCREMENT value, if one is specifically defined in the filesystem (*.sql) version of the CREATE TABLE statement. If the defined value exceeds 80% of the maximum storable value for the column type, a warning or error will be emitted, even if the column data type is allowed. However, please note that Skeema’s linter only examines *.sql definitions, not live databases, and by default Skeema does not automatically put next AUTO_INCREMENT values into *.sql table definitions. You must regularly run skeema pull --include-auto-inc to put these values into *.sql table definitions.

lint-compression

Commandsdiff, push, lint, Cloud Linter
Default“warning”
Typeenum
RestrictionsRequires one of these values: “ignore”, “warning”, “error”

This linter rule checks the compression settings for InnoDB tables. Unless set to “ignore”, a warning or error will be emitted for any usage of compression settings not listed in option allow-compression. By default, this will allow uncompressed tables, as well as compressed tables using a KEY_BLOCK_SIZE of either 4 or 8 kilobytes.

Please note that this linter rule does not examine server global variables such as innodb_file_per_table, innodb_file_format, or innodb_page_size. Certain combinations of these server-side settings may silently prevent the database from actually using compression; however, compression options like KEY_BLOCK_SIZE will still be visible in SHOW CREATE TABLE and information_schema regardless, and this linter rule’s behavior is based on querying those sources. It is the user’s responsibility to ensure that the database server is properly configured to permit use of compression if desired.

This linter rule does not yet examine tables using non-InnoDB storage engines.

Column-level compression (available in Percona Server and MariaDB) is not evaluated by this linter rule at this time, but this may change in future releases.

lint-charset

Commandsdiff, push, lint, Cloud Linter
Default“warning”
Typeenum
RestrictionsRequires one of these values: “ignore”, “warning”, “error”

This linter rule checks each table’s default character set, along with the character set of each textual column. Unless set to “ignore”, a warning or error will be emitted for any usage of a character set not listed in option allow-charset.

This rule does not currently check any other object type besides tables.

lint-definer

Commandsdiff, push, lint, Cloud Linter
Default“error”
Typeenum
RestrictionsRequires one of these values: “ignore”, “warning”, “error”

This linter rule specifies the severity of non-allowed DEFINER values for stored procedures and functions. Unless set to “ignore”, a warning or error will be emitted for any DEFINER not listed in option allow-definer.

Although this option defaults to “error” severity, please note that the default value of corresponding option allow-definer is %@%, which intentionally permits all possible users. To enforce a restriction on definers, be sure to override allow-definer. Overriding lint-definer only controls the annotation severity (e.g. warning vs error) for routines with non-allowed DEFINER users.

This option may also affect other object types with definers (e.g. views) once they are supported in a future version of Skeema.

lint-display-width

Commandsdiff, push, lint, Cloud Linter
Default“warning”
Typeenum
RestrictionsRequires one of these values: “ignore”, “warning”, “error”

This linter rule checks that the display width of int-type columns, e.g. the 11 in int(11), is equal to the default display width for the column type. Integer display widths are commonly misunderstood, and do not affect the range of values that can be stored in the column. In almost all cases, the display width has no effect whatsoever, and should be left at its default value for the column type, or omitted entirely.

There are only 3 cases where non-default display widths are relevant:

  • By convention, boolean columns are typically defined using tinyint(1) (or as bool which is just an alias for tinyint(1)). lint-display-width always ignores such columns.
  • Int-type columns using the zerofill modifier are padded with leading zeroes based on the display width. lint-display-width always ignores such columns.
  • Display widths are included in query result metadata, and in theory some applications may use this information programmatically, and intentionally have non-default display widths for this reason. This is quite rare, but in this situation it makes sense to use lint-display-width=ignore.

MySQL 8.0.17 deprecated use of integer display widths, as well as the zerofill modifier. MySQL 8.0.19 removed display widths from appearance in SHOW CREATE TABLE and information_schema in most situations. As a result, lint-display-width has no effect in MySQL 8.0.19+ and Percona Server 8.0.19+.

lint-dupe-index

Commandsdiff, push, lint, Cloud Linter
Default“warning”
Typeenum
RestrictionsRequires one of these values: “ignore”, “warning”, “error”

This linter rule checks each table for duplicate secondary indexes. Unless set to “ignore”, a warning or error will be emitted for each redundant index that is found.

lint-engine

Commandsdiff, push, lint, Cloud Linter
Default“warning”
Typeenum
RestrictionsRequires one of these values: “ignore”, “warning”, “error”

This linter rule checks each table’s storage engine. Unless set to “ignore”, a warning or error will be emitted for any table using a storage engine not listed in option allow-engine.

lint-has-fk

Commandsdiff, push, lint, Cloud Linter
Default“ignore”
Typeenum
RestrictionsRequires one of these values: “ignore”, “warning”, “error”

This linter rule checks for presence of foreign keys. This option defaults to “ignore”, meaning that presence of foreign keys does not result in a linter annotation by default. However, companies that restrict or forbid foreign keys may wish to set this to “warning” or “error”, which will flag any table defining one or more foreign keys (where the definition appears, i.e. on the “child” side of the foreign key relationship).

Companies that restrict foreign keys typically do so for these reasons:

  • Foreign keys introduce nontrivial write latency, due to the extra locking. In a high-write-volume OLTP environment, the performance impact can be quite substantial.
  • Foreign keys are problematic when using online schema change tools. Percona’s pt-osc allows them, albeit with extra complexity and risk. Other popular OSC tools – gh-ost, fb-osc, LHM – don’t support foreign keys at all.
  • Conceptually, foreign keys simply don’t work across a sharded environment. Although they still function within a single shard, application-level checks become necessary anyway for cross-shard purposes. As a result, sharded companies tend to converge on application-level checks exclusively.

lint-has-float

Commandsdiff, push, lint, Cloud Linter
Default“ignore”
Typeenum
RestrictionsRequires one of these values: “ignore”, “warning”, “error”

This linter rule checks for table columns using data type FLOAT or DOUBLE. This option defaults to “ignore”, meaning that these data types do not result in a linter annotation by default. However, companies that restrict or forbid use of floating-point types may wish to set this to “warning” or “error”.

Some companies forbid use of floating-point types because they can only store approximate values. For use-cases requiring exact precision, such as monetary data, the DECIMAL type should be used instead.

lint-has-routine

Commandsdiff, push, lint, Cloud Linter
Default“ignore”
Typeenum
RestrictionsRequires one of these values: “ignore”, “warning”, “error”

This linter rule checks for presence of stored procedures and functions. This option defaults to “ignore”, meaning that presence of routines does not result in a linter annotation by default. However, companies that restrict or forbid routines may wish to set this to “warning” or “error”.

Companies that restrict use of routines typically do so for these reasons:

  • Routines can present scalability challenges, since they involve moving computation onto the database (which is stateful and therefore harder to scale) instead of the application stack (which is stateless and easier to scale).
  • Routines involve some degree of operational complexity, in part because their bodies cannot be altered in-place without dropping and recreating the routine. Although Skeema automates this process, there is no way to avoid having a split-second period where a modified routine does not exist, which can result in application-facing query errors. As a work-around, some companies version routines using a naming scheme, but this can cause complicated deployment dependencies between the application and the database.

lint-has-time

Commandsdiff, push, lint, Cloud Linter
Default“ignore”
Typeenum
RestrictionsRequires one of these values: “ignore”, “warning”, “error”

This linter rule checks for table columns using data type TIMESTAMP, DATETIME, or TIME. This option defaults to “ignore”, meaning that these data types do not result in a linter annotation by default. However, companies that restrict or forbid use of temporal types may wish to set this to “warning” or “error”.

As an alternative to temporal types, some companies instead opt to store time-related values in an int unsigned or bigint unsigned, depending on the chosen epoch and precision. Companies that restrict use of temporal types usually do so for these reasons:

  • Conversions involving timezones, daylight savings time transitions, and/or leap second transitions are a common source of application bugs or subtle data corruption. For example, TIMESTAMP values have automatic timezone conversion behavior, while DATETIME and TIME do not.
  • Some nonstandard TIMESTAMP behaviors vary by database server version. For example, prior to MySQL 8.0, the first TIMESTAMP column in a table automatically has DEFAULT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP ON UPDATE CURRENT_TIMESTAMP if no clauses are explicitly set. This behavior can be surprising or confusing, and the version-specific change can be problematic upon upgrade.

lint-pk

Commandsdiff, push, lint, Cloud Linter
Default“warning”
Typeenum
RestrictionsRequires one of these values: “ignore”, “warning”, “error”

This linter rule checks each table for presence of a primary key. Unless set to “ignore”, a warning or error will be emitted for any table lacking an explicit primary key.

my-cnf

Commandsall
Defaulttrue
Typeboolean
RestrictionsIgnored in .skeema files

If true, Skeema will parse the standard per-user MySQL configuration file, ~/.my.cnf, for configuration information in sections [skeema], [client], and [mysql]. This permits Skeema to re-use already-configured values for options shared with MySQL, such as user, password, and socket. If false, ~/.my.cnf parsing is skipped entirely.

This option is enabled by default. To disable it, use --skip-my-cnf on the command-line, or skip-my-cnf in either /etc/skeema or /usr/local/etc/skeema. This option has no effect if disabled in ~/.skeema or any other .skeema file, since these are parsed after ~/.my.cnf.

For more information on Skeema’s configuration files and order of parsing, please refer to the configuration documentation.

new-schemas

Commandspull
Defaulttrue
Typeboolean
Restrictionsnone

If true, skeema pull will look for schemas (databases) that exist on the instance, but have no filesystem representation yet. It will then create and populate new directories for these schemas. If false, this step is skipped, and new schemas will not be pulled into the filesystem.

When using a workflow that involves running skeema pull development regularly, it may be useful to disable this option. For example, if the development environment tends to contain various extra schemas for testing purposes, set skip-new-schemas in a global or top-level .skeema file’s [development] section to avoid storing these testing schemas in the filesystem.

partitioning

Commandsdiff, push
Default“keep”
Typeenum
RestrictionsRequires one of these values: “keep”, “remove”, “modify”

Skeema v1.4.0 added diff support for partitioned tables. This option affects how DDL involving partitioned tables is generated or executed via skeema diff and skeema push.

With the default value of “keep”, tables may be partitioned (through the filesystem CREATE TABLE containing a PARTITON BY clause, either initially or one subsequently being added), but will never be de-partitioned or re-partitioned. In other words, once a table is partitioned in a database, with partitioning=keep Skeema suppresses further modifications to the partitioning clause for the table.

With a value of “remove”, tables will not be partitioned, and any already-partitioned tables will be de-partitioned. If any filesystem CREATE TABLE statements contain a PARTITION BY clause, it will effectively be ignored. Any already-partitioned tables in a database will automatically have DDL generated to de-partition them via ALTER TABLE ... REMOVE PARTITIONING.

With a value of “modify”, partitioning clauses are handled permissively. Tables will be partitioned, re-partitioned, or de-partitioned based on the presence of a PARTITION BY clause in the filesystem CREATE TABLE statement.

Overall, the intended use of the partitioning option is as follows:

  • If you use partitioning in production but not in development (for example), place partitioning=remove in a [development] section of a top-level .skeema file. This will ensure that tables in your development databases are never partitioned, removing the need to run partition-management scripts in dev.
  • The default of partitioning=keep is useful in all environments where partitioning is actually in-use; it prevents accidental re-partitioning or de-partitioning. For example, if you choose to omit PARTITION BY clauses from your checked-in *.sql files entirely, you can use partitioning=keep in environments with partitioning to prevent skeema push from ever de-partitioning any tables.
  • For one-off situations where you intentionally want to re-partition or de-partition an existing partitioned table, you can use skeema push --partitioning=modify as a command-line override.

Regardless of this option, modifications to just the partition list of a partitioned table are always ignored for RANGE and LIST partitioning methods, and are unsupported for HASH and KEY methods. Skeema will not add or remove partitions from an already-partitioned table, regardless of differences between the filesystem CREATE TABLE and the table in a live database. The intended workflow is to use an external tool/cron for managing the partition list, e.g. to remove old time-based RANGE partitions and add new ones.

This option only affects database diff/manipulation behavior, meaning the skeema diff and skeema push commands. To control partitioning behavior of filesystem *.sql dump/manipulation commands – skeema init, skeema pull, skeema format, skeema lint – see options strip-partitioning and update-partitioning. These options are intentionally distinct, to permit configuring different combinations of partitioning handling for diff vs dump behaviors, whether via ad hoc command-line use or permanent environment configuration in a .skeema file.

password

Commandsall
Defaultno password
Typestring
Restrictionsif supplied without a value, STDIN should be a TTY

Specifies what password should be used when connecting to MySQL. Just like the MySQL client, if you supply password but without a value, the user will be prompted to supply one via STDIN. Omit setting the password option entirely if the connection should not use a password at all.

Since supplying a value to password is optional, if used on the command-line then no space may be used between the option and value. In other words, --password=value and -pvalue are valid, but --password value and -p value are not. This is consistent with how the MySQL client parses this option as well.

Note that skeema init intentionally does not persist password to a .skeema file. If you would like to store the password, you may manually add it to ~/.my.cnf (recommended) or to a .skeema file (ideally a global one, i.e. not part of your schema repo, to keep it out of source control).

As a special case, as an alternative to supplying password in an option file or on the command-line, you may supply a password via the MYSQL_PWD environment variable. This is supported for compatibility with the standard MySQL client. However, as noted in the MySQL manual, “This method of specifying your MySQL password must be considered extremely insecure.” For instance, environment variables are exposed by Linux’s /proc filesystem. Supplying a password directly on the command-line is equally insecure though.

port

Commandsall
Default3306
Typeint
Restrictionsnone

Specifies a nonstandard port to use when connecting to MySQL via TCP/IP.

reuse-temp-schema

Commandsdiff, push, pull, lint, format
Defaultfalse
Typeboolean
Restrictionsnone

When using the default of workspace=temp-schema, this option controls how to clean up temporary workspace schemas. See the FAQ for background on temporary workspace schemas.

If false, the temporary workspace schema is dropped once it is no longer needed. If true, the schema will be kept in place, but will be emptied of tables and routines.

This option has no effect with other values of the workspace option, such as workspace=docker.

This option is deprecated as of Skeema v1.4.0, since dropping the temporary workspace schema is a safer approach with no real drawbacks. Dropping the schema does not require any additional privilege grants, and is performed in a way that minimizes any potential performance impact.

safe-below-size

Commandsdiff, push
Default0
Typesize
Restrictionsnone

For any table below the specified size (in bytes), Skeema will allow execution of unsafe operations, even if allow-unsafe has not be enabled. (To see a list of which operations are considered unsafe, see the documentation for allow-unsafe.)

The size comparison is a strict less-than. This means that with the default value of 0, no unsafe operations will be allowed automatically, as no table can be less than 0 bytes.

To only allow unsafe operations on empty tables (ones without any rows), set safe-below-size to 1. Skeema always treats empty tables as size 0 bytes as a special-case.

This option is intended to permit rapid development when altering a new table before it’s in use, or dropping a table that was never in use. The intended pattern is to set safe-below-size in a global option file, potentially to a higher value in the development environment and a lower value in the production environment. This way, whenever unsafe operations are to be run on a larger table, the user must supply --allow-unsafe manually on the command-line when appropriate to confirm the action.

This option does not apply to other object types besides tables, such as stored procedures or functions, as they have no notion of “size”.

schema

Commandsall
DefaultN/A
Typestring
Restrictionssee limitations on placement

Specifies which schema name(s) to operate on.

skeema init may be supplied --schema on the command-line, to indicate that only a single schema should be exported to the filesystem, instead of the normal default of all non-system schemas on the database instance. In this situation, only a single subdirectory is created, rather than a subdirectory for the instance containing another nested level of subdirectories for each schema.

Aside from the special case of skeema init, the schema option should only appear in .skeema option files, inside directories containing *.sql files and no subdirectories. In option files, the value of the schema option may take any of these forms:

  • A single schema name
  • Multiple schema names, separated by commas
  • A single asterisk character *
  • A forward-slash-wrapped regular expression
  • A backtick-wrapped command line to execute; the command’s STDOUT will be split on a consistent delimiter (newline, tab, comma, or space) and each token will be treated as a schema name

Most users will just use the first option, a single schema name.

The ability to specify multiple schema names is useful in sharded environments with multi-tenancy: each database instance contains several schemas, and they all have the same set of tables, and therefore each schema change needs to be applied to multiple schemas on an instance.

Setting schema=* is a special value meaning “all non-system schemas on the database instance”. This is the easiest choice for a multi-tenant sharded environment, where all non-system schemas have the exact same set of tables. The ignored system schemas include information_schema, performance_schema, mysql, sys, and test. Additional schemas may be ignored by using the ignore-schema option.

In some sharded environments, it is easier to express a dynamic set of schema names to include, rather than exclude. Setting the schema value to a forward-slash-wrapped regular expression accomplishes this. For example, schema=/^foo/ will map this directory to all schema names beginning with prefix “foo”. This approach is useful when some schemas (with a common naming convention) represent shards with the same set of tables, while other special unsharded schemas are also present.

Some sharded environments may need even more flexibility – for example, when the sharding scheme does not follow a consistent naming pattern. In this case, set schema to a backtick-wrapped external command shellout. This permits the directory to be mapped to one or more schema names dynamically, based on the output of any arbitrary script or binary, such as a service discovery client. The command line may contain special variables, which Skeema will dynamically replace with appropriate values. See options with variable interpolation for more information. The following variables are supported for this option:

  • {HOST} – hostname (or IP) for the database instance being processed
  • {PORT} – port number for the database instance being processed
  • {USER} – MySQL username defined by the user option either via command-line or option file
  • {PASSWORD} – MySQL password defined by the password option either via command-line or option file
  • {PASSWORDX} – Behaves like {PASSWORD} when the command-line is executed, but only displays X’s whenever the command-line is displayed on STDOUT
  • {ENVIRONMENT} – environment name from the first positional arg on Skeema’s command-line, or “production” if none specified
  • {DIRNAME} – The base name (last path element) of the directory being processed. May be useful as a key in a service discovery lookup.
  • {DIRPATH} – The full (absolute) path of the directory being processed.

Regardless of which form of the schema option is used, the ignore-schema option is applied last as a regex “filter” against it, potentially removing some of the listed schema names based on the configuration.

socket

Commandsall
Default“/tmp/mysql.sock”
Typestring
Restrictionsnone

When the host option is “localhost”, this option specifies the path to a UNIX domain socket to connect to the local MySQL server. It is ignored if host isn’t “localhost” and/or if the port option is specified.

strip-partitioning

Commandsinit, format, pull, lint
Defaultfalse
Typeboolean
Restrictionsnone

When enabled, this option strips PARTITION BY clauses from table definitions written to the filesystem. This is useful if you want to completely exclude partitioning-related clauses from version control, for example if external partitioning automation is completely responsible for partition management.

To exclude PARTITION BY clauses when initializing a new directory, use skeema init --strip-partitioning. To strip PARTITION BY clauses from an existing repo, use skeema format --strip-partitioning.

This option is also supported by skeema lint and skeema pull since these commands inherently reformat files by default. This option has no effect when using skeema pull --skip-format or skeema lint --skip-format. It also has no effect when using skeema pull --update-partitioning.

temp-schema

Commandsdiff, push, pull, lint, format
Default“_skeema_tmp”
Typestring
Restrictionsnone

Specifies the name of the temporary schema used for Skeema workspace operations. See the FAQ for more information on how this schema is used.

If using a non-default value for this option, it should not ever point at a schema containing real application data. Skeema will automatically detect this and abort in this situation, but may first drop any empty tables that it found in the schema.

temp-schema-binlog

Commandsdiff, push, pull, lint, format
Default“auto”
Typeenum
RestrictionsRequires one of these values: “on”, “off”, “auto”

With workspace=temp-schema, this option controls whether or not workspace operations are written to the database’s binary log, which means they will be executed on replicas if replication is configured.

If possible, it is generally preferable to avoid replication of workspace queries. The workspace schema is “cleaned up” (dropped in a safe manner) after processing each directory, and typically Skeema should be configured to only interact with writable (master) databases anyway, so replicating the workspace queries serves no purpose. However, the ability to selectively skip binary logging requires at least one of the following administrative privileges: SUPER (any flavor), SYSTEM_VARIABLES_ADMIN (MySQL 8.0+), SESSION_VARIABLES_ADMIN (MySQL 8.0+), or BINLOG ADMIN (MariaDB 10.5+). These administrative privileges are typically unavailable in database-as-a-service environments, such as Amazon RDS.

With a value of “on”, Skeema will not do any special handling for workspace queries, meaning that they will be written to the binlog and be executed by replicas. This value is guaranteed to work regardless of user privileges.

With a value of “off”, Skeema will skip binary logging (via SET SESSION sql_log_bin=0) for workspace queries, meaning that they will not be written to the binlog or executed by replicas. If Skeema’s user lacks sufficient superuser privileges, a fatal error will be returned.

With the default value of “auto”, Skeema will detect whether the configured user has sufficient privileges to skip binary logging of workspace queries, and will do so if available. In other words, “auto” functions as “off” if running as a privileged administrative user, or “on” otherwise.

This option has no effect if the database’s binary log is already globally disabled.

This option does not impact non-workspace-related queries executed by skeema push.

temp-schema-threads

Commandsdiff, push, pull, lint, format
Default5
Typeint
RestrictionsMust be a positive integer

With workspace=temp-schema, this option controls the concurrency level for CREATE queries when populating the workspace, as well as DROP queries when cleaning up the workspace.

When using Skeema in situations involving high object counts (hundreds or thousands of tables and routines in a single schema) and/or nontrivial latency between Skeema and the database server (running Skeema locally against a database server in a remote data center), increasing this value may improve Skeema’s performance.

In other cases, it may be beneficial to lower this value. Some high-volume OLTP workloads are especially sensitive to contention for InnoDB’s dict_sys mutex, meaning that the default concurrency level of 5 can cause other application queries to pile up or stall. This mutex contention is more prevalent in pre-MySQL 8.0 systems, especially if the combination of table count and connection count overwhelms the system’s table_open_cache, and/or there are many INSERTs to table(s) lacking a primary key.

In either situation, also consider use of workspace=docker as an alternative solution.

update-partitioning

Commandspull
Defaultfalse
Typeboolean
Restrictionsnone

By default, when updating a CREATE TABLE statement that already exists in the filesystem, skeema pull ignores any database-side changes to the PARTITION BY clause of the table definition. This behavior is designed to help in these scenarios:

  • When running skeema pull against a production environment with external partition management automation/crons, it is undesirable to pollute the commit history with frequent changes to tables' partition lists. (This is conceptually similar to the default behavior of filtering out changes to auto_increment counters.)
  • When running skeema pull against a development environment that intentionally omits partitioning (via partitioning=remove in a .skeema file affecting diff/push), it is typically preferable to leave any PARTITION BY clauses from the *.sql files in-place, despite the development environment tables lacking partitioning.

To override this default behavior for situations in which you do intentionally want to update PARTITION BY clauses in *.sql files, to literally reflect whatever is currently used in the database, enable update-partitioning for example via skeema pull --update-partitioning.

This option may not work properly when combined with --skip-format; some tables that only have partitioning-related changes will not be updated when combining these options.

user

Commandsall
Default“root”
Typestring
Restrictionsnone

Specifies the name of the MySQL user to connect with.

verify

Commandsdiff, push
Defaulttrue
Typeboolean
Restrictionsnone

Controls whether generated ALTER TABLE statements are automatically verified for correctness. If true, each generated ALTER will be tested in the temporary workspace schema. See the FAQ for more information.

It is recommended that this option be left at its default of true, but if desired you can disable verification for performance reasons.

warnings

Commandsdiff, push, lint
Defaultempty string
Typestring
RestrictionsDeprecated as of Skeema v1.3

This option controlled the linter functionality in Skeema v1.2. As of Skeema v1.3 it is now deprecated, in favor of using separate lint-* options for each linter rule. This change has been made to avoid having a cumbersome list in a single option value.

If set, this option will still function in Skeema v1.3+, but it can only control the three linter rules that existed in Skeema v1.2. Users should migrate their configuration to the new options.

In Skeema v1.2 the default value of this option was “bad-charset,bad-engine,no-pk”, but in v1.3+ it is now an empty string. The individual lint-* options each have their own appropriate default.

workspace

Commandsdiff, push, pull, lint, format
Default“temp-schema”
Typeenum
RestrictionsRequires one of these values: “temp-schema”, “docker”

This option controls where workspace schemas are created. See the FAQ for background on the purpose of workspace schemas. The following commands use workspaces in order to introspect the tables contained in each directory’s *.sql files:

With the default value of workspace=temp-schema, a temporary schema is created on each MySQL instance that Skeema interacts with. The schema name is configured by the temp-schema option. When the schema is no longer needed, it is dropped, unless the deprecated reuse-temp-schema option is enabled.

With workspace=docker, a Docker container on localhost is used for the workspace instead. This can be advantageous for two reasons:

  1. Performance: If the machine you’re running Skeema from is in a different region/datacenter than your database, interacting with a container on localhost will avoid the network latency penalty, especially when your schemas contain a large number of tables.
  2. Security: If you want to avoid giving Skeema extensive privileges, or otherwise want to avoid creating and dropping the temporary schema on live databases.

The containers have the following properties:

  • The container image will be based on the flavor option specified for the corresponding database instance, to ensure the workspace behavior matches that of the live database. For example, when interacting with a live database running Percona Server 5.7 (flavor=percona:5.7), the local container will use image “percona:5.7” from DockerHub.
  • The container name follows a template based on the image. In the previous example, the container will be called “skeema-percona-5.7”.
  • The containerized MySQL instance will only listen on the localhost loopback interface, to ensure that external machines cannot communicate with it.
  • The containerized MySQL instance will have an empty root password.
  • The vast majority of global variables of the containerized MySQL instance are left at their defaults for the corresponding version/flavor. This may cause divergent behavior if your live databases configure non-default global settings that affect DDL, such as explicit_defaults_for_timestamp, innodb_large_prefix, innodb_file_format, among others. Many of these may be set at the session level via connect-options; such settings will be used for Skeema’s sessions on the workspace container as well as live databases.

Skeema dynamically manages containers as needed: if a container with a specific image is required, but does not currently exist, it will be created on-the-fly. This may take 10-20 seconds upon first use of workspace=docker. By default, the containers remain running after Skeema exits (avoiding the performance hit of subsequent invocations), but this behavior is configurable using the docker-cleanup option.

Note that if Skeema itself is also being run in a Docker container, use of workspace=docker may be difficult to get working properly. In this case, you must either bind-mount the host’s Docker socket into Skeema’s container, or use a privileged Docker-in-Docker (dind) image; each choice has trade-offs involving operational complexity and security. For more information, please see GitHub issue #89.

write

Commandsformat
Defaulttrue
Typeboolean
Restrictionsnone

If true, skeema format will rewrite .sql files to match the canonical format shown in MySQL’s SHOW CREATE. If false, this step is skipped. Either way, the command’s exit code will be non-zero if any files contained statements that were not already in the canonical format.

This option is enabled by default. To disable file writes in skeema format, use --skip-write on the command-line. This may be useful in CI pipelines that verify proper formatting of commits, to enforce a strict style guide.